Glaucoma treatment is aimed at reducing pressure in the eye. Regular use of prescription eye drops are the most common and often the first treatment. Some cases may require systemic medications, laser treatment or other surgery. While there is not yet a cure for glaucoma, early diagnosis and continuing treatment can preserve eyesight.
- Medications. A number of medications are currently available to treat glaucoma. Typically, medications reduce elevated pressure in the eye. A single medication or a combination of medications may be prescribed. The type of medication may change if it is not reducing pressure enough or if the patient is experiencing side effects.
- Surgery. Procedures include laser treatment, making a drainage flap in the eye, inserting a drainage valve, or destroying the tissue that creates the fluid in the eye. All procedures aim to reduce the pressure inside the eye when medication is not sufficient. Surgery cannot reverse vision loss.
- Laser surgery. Laser trabeculoplasty helps fluid drain out of the eye. A high-energy laser beam stimulates the structure that drains fluid from the eye (the trabecular meshwork) so that fluid drains more efficiently. The results may be somewhat temporary, and the procedure may need to be repeated in the future.
- Conventional surgery. If eye drops and laser surgery aren’t controlling eye pressure, you may need a trabeculectomy. This filtering microsurgery creates a drainage flap. Fluid can then percolate into the flap and later drain into the vascular system.
- Drainage implants. Drainage valve implant surgery may be an option for adults with uncontrolled glaucoma or secondary glaucoma or for children with glaucoma. A small silicone tube is inserted in the eye to help drain fluid.
Content provided by the American Optometric Association. Click here for more information.